In order to apply VLANs in a network ecosystem, you’ll will need a Layer 2 switch that supports them. Almost all switches sold today that are described as “managed” switches present the skill to make ports associates of various VLANs. Having said that, switches that really don’t present any configuration perform (this sort of as quite a few essential, decrease-end switches) really don’t present the skill to configure VLANs. Almost any Cisco Catalyst switch that you’ll arrive across today supplies the skill to make ports component of various VLANs.
Before obtaining into the specifics of how a VLAN functions, it truly is worth checking out some of the advantages that a VLAN supplies. Initially and foremost, VLANs present the skill to define broadcast domains without the constraint of actual physical locale. For case in point, instead of producing all of the end users on the third floor component of the exact broadcast domain, you could use VLANs to make all of the end users in the HR office component of the exact broadcast domain. The gains of undertaking this are quite a few. Firstly, these end users could be spread all through various flooring on a building, so a VLAN would permit you to make all of these end users component of the exact broadcast domain. To that end, this can also be seen as a safety attribute – given that all HR end users are component of the exact broadcast domain, you could afterwards use guidelines this sort of as obtain lists to regulate which regions of the network these end users have obtain to, or which end users have obtain to the HR broadcast domain. Furthermore, if the HR department’s server ended up put on the exact VLAN, HR end users would be able to obtain their server without the will need for targeted visitors to cross routers and likely impression other parts of the network.
VLANs are defined on a switch on a port-by-port foundation. That is, you could choose to make ports 1-6 component of VLAN 1, and ports 7-12 component of VLAN 2. There is certainly no will need for ports in the exact VLAN to be contiguous at all – you could make ports 1, 3 and 5 on a switch component of VLAN 1, for case in point. On almost all switches today, all ports are component of VLAN 1 by default. If you want to apply additional VLANs, these must 1st be defined in the switch’s software package (this sort of as the IOS on a Cisco switch), and then ports must be produced associates of that VLAN. A VLAN just isn’t limited to a one switch, either. If trunk hyperlinks are applied to interconnect switches, a VLAN could have 3 ports on a single switch, and 7 ports on yet another, as revealed underneath. The sensible mother nature of a VLAN would make it a incredibly productive resource, especially in more substantial networking environments.
I mentioned a couple of periods now that a VLAN is simply a specific variety of broadcast domain, in that it is defined on a switch port foundation rather than on conventional actual physical boundaries. Recall from the before posts in this collection that when a host in a single broadcast domain needs to connect with yet another, a router must be included. This exact holds correct for VLANs. For case in point, think about that port 1 on a switch is component of VLAN 1, and port 2 component of VLAN 99. If all of the switch’s ports ended up component of VLAN 1, the hosts connected to these ports could connect without problem. Having said that, when the ports are produced component of various VLANs, this is no lengthier correct. In order for a host connected to port 1 to connect with yet another connected to port 2, a router must be included.
You may perhaps now be acquainted with the notion of a Layer 3 switch. A Layer 3 switch is frequently a Layer 2 switching unit that also consists of the skill to act as a router, typically via the use of additional hardware and software package characteristics. If a switch consists of Layer 3 abilities, it can be configured to route targeted visitors in between VLANs defined in the switch, without the will need for packets to ever depart the switch. Having said that, if a switch only consists of Layer 2 functionaility, an external router must be configured to route targeted visitors in between the VLANs. In some scenarios, it truly is completely feasible that a packet will depart switch port 1, be forwarded to an external router, and then be routed proper back to port 2 on the originating switch. For this reason, quite a few corporations have made the decision to apply Layer 3 switches strategically all through their network. Irrespective of the process chosen, it truly is most vital for you to identify that when a host on a single VLAN desires to connect with a host on yet another, a router must by some means be included.
Extending VLANs Involving Switches
In order to lengthen VLANs across various switches, a trunk backlink must interconnect the switches. Think of a trunk backlink as getting similar to an uplink in between hubs – typically a trunk backlink is executed in between fast switch ports on two various switches using a crossover cable. For case in point, you could interconnect two Gigabit Ethernet ports on various switches using fiber optics, or two 100 Mbps switch ports using a conventional Cat5 crossover cable. In most scenarios it is frequently advised that you use the fastest port obtainable for trunk connections, given that this backlink will typically have a wonderful offer of targeted visitors, quite possibly for multiple VLANs.
To begin, let’s presume that you have connected a backlink in between the 100 Mbps ports of two switches, as revealed underneath. Observe that every of these ports are associates of VLAN 1 on every switch. By default, without any additional configuration, these ports will act as a trunk backlink, but will only pass targeted visitors for the VLAN related with their port connections – VLAN 1. This variety of backlink, wherever only targeted visitors for a one VLAN is passed, is referred to as an “Access Hyperlink”. While an obtain backlink does the occupation for a one VLAN ecosystem, multiple obtain hyperlinks would be expected if you desired targeted visitors from multiple VLANs to be passed in between switches. Owning multiple obtain hyperlinks in between the exact pair of switches would be a huge squander of switch ports. Certainly yet another resolution is expected when targeted visitors for multiple VLANs requirements to be transferred across a one trunk backlink. The resolution for this arrives via the use of VLAN tagging.
When you want targeted visitors from multiple VLANs to be able to traverse a backlink that interconnects two switches, you will need to configure a VLAN tagging process on the ports that offer the backlink. While there are a variety of tagging procedures in use for various technologies, the two that you will need to be knowledgeable of for the reason of the CCNA test are identified as InterSwitch Hyperlink (ISL) and 802.1q. ISL is a Cisco proprietary VLAN tagging procedures, while 802.1q is a open standard. When interconnecting two Cisco switches, ISL is typically the greatest preference, but if you will need to interconnect switches of various styles (a Cisco switch and an Avaya switch, for case in point), then you’ll will need to use IETF.
For the CCNA test, the only thing that you genuinely will need to know about 802.1q is that it is the open standard for VLAN tagging, and really should be applied in combined environments. The test expects you to have a rather deeper being familiar with of ISL, like how it will work, when it can be applied, and ultimately, its reason.
Initially and foremost, you will need to be knowledgeable that ISL will only perform on ports with a speed of 100 Mbps or increased. That is, you can not use ISL in conjunction with a 10 Mbps port. That should not be an problem, given that most Cisco Catalyst switches present at the very least a single or two Fast Ethernet ports, even on decrease-end designs like the 1912. Next, the ports on either end of the backlink will need to assistance and be configured for ISL.
ISL is referred to as a VLAN tagging process. Primarily, what ISL does is tag a frame as it leaves a switch with information about the VLAN that the frame belongs to. For case in point, if a frame from VLAN 99 is leaving a switch, the ISL port will insert information to the frame header, designating that the frame is component of VLAN 99. When this ISL frame reaches the port at the other end of the switch, it will search at the ISL header, identify that the frame is meant for VLAN 99, will strip off the ISL information, and will ahead it into VLAN 99. A single of the problems with VLAN tagging is that by including information to an Ethernet frame, the measurement of the frame can go beyond the Ethernet optimum of 1518 bytes, to 1522 bytes. Mainly because of this, all non-ISL ports will see frames more substantial than 1518 bytes as giants, and as this sort of, invalid. This is the reason why a port requirements to be configured for ISL in order for it to realize this various frame structure.
A single VLAN tagging is configured on the ports related with the backlink connecting switches, the backlink is identified as a “Trunk Hyperlink”. A trunk backlink is able of transferring frames from quite a few various VLANs via the use of technologies like ISL or 802.1q.
A better system listed here would be to configure ISL tagging on a single of the router’s Fast Ethernet interfaces, and then configure ISL on the connected switch port. This configuration, also identified as a “router on a adhere”, would permit the router to process the targeted visitors of multiple VLANs, and route targeted visitors in between them. We’ll get into the specifics of routing in just the upcoming couple of posts.
Beyond its intended reason of configuring trunk hyperlinks in between switches, ISL is typically applied in other ways. For case in point, it is feasible to purchase network interface cards that assistance ISL. If a server ended up configured with an ISL-able network card, it could be connected to an ISL port on a switch.
This would permit a server to be produced component of multiple VLANs at the same time, the benefit getting that hosts from various broadcast domains could then obtain the server without the will need for their packets to be routed. While this may perhaps appear like a best resolution, you will need to keep in mind than the server would now see all targeted visitors from these VLANs, which could negatively impression overall performance.
I hope this short article has offered you the great information about the Vlans.
Resource: EzineArticles.com by Kashif Raza