A Comparison Between the Human and Ruminant Digestive System


The food items is taken into the mouth wherever it is chewed, mixed with saliva which is secreted by glands in the mouth. Immediately after mastication a portion of food items is gathered on the tongue. It is then swallowed and the opening to the larynx is shut off by a tiny flap of tissue named the epiglottis. This flap stops the food items from coming into into the respiratory tract. Should really some food items stray into this tract a reflux action happens by coughing to expel the food items out.

The food items passes from the esophagus into the abdomen, contractions of the muscular wall of the abdomen ensure further more mixing and mechanical disintegration of the food items, which at the identical time is mixed with the gastric juice secreted by the abdomen.

The abdomen has a mucous membrane lining and is protected from the gastric juice which has enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The food items is damaged down into more compact particles for simpler absorption into the bloodstream and the relaxation of the food items passes into the tiny intestine and duodenum via the pyloric sphincter valve, a muscular ring at the finish of the abdomen and intestine.

In the tiny intestine, rhythmic actions of the walls churn up the food items and blend it with the digestive juices, which contain pancreatic and bile juices (The bile is developed by the liver and stored by the gall bladder) further more digestion then normally takes position as the outcome of the action of enzymes existing in these juices.

Absorption of the digestive vitamins normally takes position largely via the mucus membrane of the tiny intestine. The rhythmic actions of the intestine drive the unabsorbed food items, and squander make a difference excreted from the blood into the massive intestine, listed here the water is absorbed by the walls of the intestine and partly dehydrated content passes to the rectum from which it is excreted from the human body via the anus as faeces.


The title ruminant usually means ” Chewing The Cud” and it is a title provided to individuals mammals of even – toed, cloven hoofed, such as Cattle, Sheep, Goats are ruminants.

Other teams of ruminant – like animals contain the antelopes, deer, camels, llamas, hippopotamus, sloths and kangaroos.

The ruminant has a abdomen consisting of 4 compartments (camels have a few.)


The food items is partly chewed then swallowed and it passes into the initially compartment named the rumen. The massive abdomen has no digestive juices or excretory glands existing and the food items is attacked by massive numbers of residing protozoa, microbes and micro organism which by now are existing in the walls of the ruminant abdomen. The breakdown of cellulose, which vegetation are mostly composed of normally takes position in this section of the abdomen and the food items is regurgitated from time to time into the mouth in tiny amounts and slowly and gradually chewed to a pulp, and when food items is swallowed once more, it enters a next compartment named the reticulum.


This section of the abdomen breaks down the cellulose further more and passes it to the 3rd compartment named the omasum.


The omasum has massive leaf – like buildings that increases the area area for productive water absorption, there the muscular tissues stir and lower it further more till it enters the fourth compartment, named the abomasum.


“True Abdomen” A abdomen a lot like ours. In this organ gastric juice is secreted, it has hydrochloric acid which kills most of the microbes and starts digesting them and their contents are then absorbed to supply vital vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

Ruminants have specialised metabolisms thanks to the presence of digestive micro organism. Protein desires are equipped by the rumen micro organism which use straightforward substances urea and inorganic sulphates to manufacture these proteins. This is a significant difference amongst ruminants and other animals because they create their very own protein. Protein is a dietary need of all other animals.


In most ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, Goats) there is a absence of higher incisors – changed by a really hard “Dental Pad” nicely fashioned even decreased incisors. Properly produced molars and premolars for grinding motion is “Lateral”. The toothless hole amongst incisors and premolars permits the tongue to manipulate the food items. Chewing actions acts as a stimuli, prospects to increased salivation, particularly on the facet on which the chewing is performed. In cattle up to 200 litres may well be developed in 24 hours. The saliva is abundant in bicarbonate, which serves to neutralize the fatty acids developed by fermentation.



Specialised tongue and lip for grasping and tearing.

Properly produced molars and premolars for grinding, motion is “lateral”.

In most ruminants higher tooth changed by “Dental Pad”.

A hole amongst premolars and molars permits the tongue to manipulate the food items into tiny amounts prior to swallowing.

Mouth is taken to food items.

Intricate digestive program (4 Stomachs).

Regurgitation of cud for chewing at relaxation, just one established of tooth for lifetime, tooth don flat, with the age.

Protein desires equipped by rumen micro organism.

Herbivores – no meat.


Upper and decreased tooth motion is “Vertical” Incisors and canine create shearing action, employed for chopping food items, premolars and molars for grinding and crushing.

Two sets of tooth – reduction via decay and poor nourishment – changed by dentures (Phony Teeth).

Meals is taken to mouth.

Digestive Program (just one abdomen).

Protein is a dietary need and is delivered by the ingestion of a variety of food items.

Vomiting a lot more popular in carnivores and omnivores. Forceful ejection of gastric contents from the mouth.

Assortment of food items to obtain a variety of other vitamins.

Unwell wellbeing, weather conditions adjustments, irritability and pressure, may well have an effect on digestive processes.

Omnivores – meat and vegetation.


Meals, water, and oxygen to sustain lifetime, we require related vitamins and create squander merchandise.

Supply: EzineArticles.com by Julie Eden

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